Who Will Protect Us From Him?
George Bush's sense of religion makes him alarmingly self-righteous
1. alarmingly : alarm은 '경보, 공포, 놀람, 비상’을 뜻하므로, alarmingly는 ‘방해하여 혼란스럽고 불안하게 만드는 가운데 의문을 갖게 만드는 상황’이라는 의미를 내포한다. ‘위험’ 앞에서 ‘주의를 환기’하고 있다. (alarming : interrupting or inconveniencing someone, frightening)
2. self-righteous : 자신의 공로에 대해 지나치게 높게 평가하는 마음인데, 다른 사람의 결점을 못 견뎌하는 상태를 함께 내포한다. (having too high an opinion of one's own merits and being intolerant of other people's faults)
As the nation observed the fifth anniversary of the 9/11 attacks, President George Bush faced growing public disapproval of the war in Iraq. So the Bush administration launched a new offensive to defend its disastrous war, turning unified national mourning into bitter partisan political debate.
1. offensive : 여기서는 명사로 쓰였다. 적극적이거나 공격적인 행동이나 태도. (an aggressive action or attitude)
2. turning ~ : ~하면서(전환시키면서). turn의 주체는 the Bush administration이다.
First the president delivered a series of speeches in which he equated his war in Iraq with the war on terror, despite widespread public opinion that the Iraq war is both a failure and a distraction from the real battles against terrorism. Then he again became “theologian-in-chief,” using stark imagery of good and evil and language about the “clash of civilizations” to defend his apocalyptic mission. A classified National Intelligence Estimate done by 16 U.S. intelligence agencies, which came to light in September, warned that the war on Iraq has increased, not lessened, the threat from terrorism and has spawned a “new generation of Islamic radicalism,” according to The New York Times. The administration’s response has been to attack its critics’ integrity, motives, and patriotism. The president has become even more self-confident, declaring, “I’ve never been more convinced that the decisions I made are the right decisions.”
1. a series of speeches in which : 본래는, he equated his war in Iraq with the war on terror in a series of speeches의 문장. 밑줄 친 부분을 관계대명사가 받으면서 in이 which 앞으로 갔다. which는 a series of speeches를 가리킨다. ‘그가 ~을 암시한 연설에서’
2. equate A with B : A를 B와 동일시하다.
3. despite +명사(형) : ~임에도 불구하고.
4. using ~ : ~을 사용하면서. use의 목적어는 stark imagery of good and evil과 language about ~ 이다. use의 주체는 he(대통령).
5. to defend ~ : ~을 옹호(방어)하기 위해서.
6. apocalyptic : 묵시적인. ‘격변이나 재난 등에 대하여 암시하거나 미리 알리는’의 뜻. (signalling or foretelling an upheaval, disaster, etc.)
7. done by ~ : ~에 의해 행해진. 앞의 a classified National Intelligence Estimate를 꾸며준다. which was done by ~ 에서, 관계대명사+be동사(which was)가 생략되었다.
8. which ~ : which는 a classified national Intelligence Estimate를 가리킨다.
9. come to light : 알려지게 되거나 발견되다. (to be made known or discovered)
10. integrity : 도덕적 가치와 원칙을 엄격히 고수한다는 의미. (uprightness or strict adherence to moral values and principles)
11. self-confident : ‘자기 자신의 능력을 확신하거나 의존하는’의 뜻. 때때로 그래서 오만한 상태를 내포한다. (having confidence in/reliance on one' own abilities, sometimes with arrogance)
12. declaring, " ~ " : “ ~ ”라고 선포하면서. 여기서 declare의 주체는 the president.
Vice President Dick Cheney took his usual low-road approach of attacking critics of the war as appeasers, accusing them of giving aid and comfort to terrorists. Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld invoked the precedent of Hitler and suggested that critics of the war would have been soft on Nazism and fascism too. Republican House Majority Leader John Boehner showed just how low politicians can go by saying, “I listen to my Democrat friends, and I wonder if they’re more interested in protecting the terrorists than in protecting the American people.” Whatever happened to honest and civil debate?
1. low-road approach : 로-로드법. ‘저도법, 낮은 길’이라고도 하는데, 비난의 대상을 찾아 적대적인 조치를 취하는 것으로 문제를 푸는 방식. 경제에서는 경기 침체 시 임금 삭감과 감원 등을 통해 비용을 줄이는 전략을 말한다.
2. of attacking ~ : 동격의 of. ~를 공격하는 방법.
3. accusing ~ : ~를 비난하면서. accuse하는 주체는 Vice President Dick Cheney. accuse A of B : A를 B 때문에 비난하다. B는 명사형(~ing).
4. invoke : 자신의 주장을 지지하기 위하여 원리나 말, 유명한 사람들을 언급하는 것을 말한다. (to refer something such as a principle, a saying, or a famous person, in order to support your argument)
5. Whatever happened to ~ ? : ~에게 대관절 무엇이 일어났는가? (~는 어떻게 되었단 말인가?)
6. debate : 특정한 주제에 대하여 두세 사람이 반론을 제시하는 형태로 청중 앞에서 이뤄지는 공적인 토론. ‘사회적으로 광범위하게 공유되고 있는 논의’라는 뜻을 내포한다. (a formal discussion, often in front of an audience, in which two or more people put forward opposing views on a particular subject &general discussion on a subject, not necessarily in one place or one time)
Even prominent Republicans are challenging Bush’s approach. Colin Powell, Bush’s first-term Secretary of State, wrote to Sen. John McCain, “The world is beginning to doubt the moral basis of our fight against terrorism.” McCain and a few other courageous Republican senators opposed Bush’s proposal that the United States no longer abide by the Geneva Conventions prohibition against “outrages upon personal dignity” - including “humiliating and degrading treatment” - to allow his secret CIA interrogators a free hand to ignore international law in dealing with terror suspects. The GOP senators, who were criticized by Religious Right activists for opposing Bush on the torture question, argued that America should operate on higher ground, even if the terrorists don’t, and worried that Bush’s actions could put American servicemen and women in grave jeopardy.
1. Bush's proposal that ~ : ~라는 부시의 제안.
2. to allow ~ : ~를 허락하기 위해(부사적 용법).
3. a free hand : 바라는 대로 할 수 있는 자유. (freedom to do as desired)
4. to ignore ~ : ~를 무시하는(형용사적 용법). 앞의 a free hand를 꾸며준다.
5. for opposing ~ : ~를 반대했다는 이유로, 때문에.
6. even if ~ : ~ 임에도 불구하고. 아직 일어나지 않은 일에 대한 가정이다. 일어난 실제 일에 대한 가정으로 ‘~임에도 불구하고’를 뜻할 때는 even though ~ 를 쓴다.
7. grave : 진지한, 심각한, 중대한, 매우 위험한. (serious, very dangerous)
It’s absolutely shocking that the president of the United States now advocates, as an operational American policy, what most of the world would regard as “torture.” What has happened at Abu Ghraib, at Guantanamo prison camp, and at secret CIA interrogation chambers around the world has put a deep moral stain on America. The Bush administration’s war in Iraq and its conduct of its “war on terror” have generated massive anti-American sentiment around the world - to the absolute glee of terrorists who are anxious to recruit a new generation of angry murderers. Bush has made the world more dangerous, not less, and he has made our children less safe, not more.
1. advocate, as ~ , A : ~로써 A를 주창하다, 옹호하다.
2. what most of the world would regard as "toture" : regard A(what) as B(toture)는 ‘A를 B로 간주하다’인데, 여기서 A를 관계대명사 what으로 받았다. 대부분의 세상이 ‘고문’으로 여기는 것. 여기서 would는 ‘~일 것이다’로, most of the world 안에 조건절의 뜻이 포함되어 있다.
3. generate A to B : generate는 ‘생산하거나 창조하다’는 뜻이므로, ‘A를 만들어내어 B에 이르다. 결과적으로 B를 초래하다’는 의미. 반미 감정을 증대시켜 결과적으로 테러리스트들이 좋아하게 되었다는 뜻.
4. be anxious to ~ : anxious는 바람이나 기대로 흥분한 상태다. ‘~를 하는 데 안달이다’.
5. made the world ~ , made our children ~ : 세상을 ~하게 만들고 우리의 아이들을 ~하게 만들었다.
The most dangerous thing of all is how confident Bush is about his policies and direction, how little the world’s realities intrude upon his self-reflection, and how his sense of religion and God make the president not only supremely self-confident but also alarmingly self-righteous.
1. how confident ~ , how little ~ , and how ~ : 모두 the most dangerous thing of all에 해당된다. little는 ‘거의 ~ 없는’이란 뜻. 차례로, ‘얼마나 확신하는지,’ ‘얼마나 거의 ~ 못하는지,’ 그리고 ‘어떻게 ~ 하는지(~라고 하는 것)’.
2. intrude upon ~ : ~을 강요하거나 부과하다. (to force or impose ~)
3. not only A but also B : A뿐만 아니라 B도 역시.
This fall, Bush met in the Oval Office with a group of conservative journalists and linked the war in Iraq to his faith and to what he saw as the possibility of a “Third Great Awakening” tied to the war against terrorism. He invoked Abraham Lincoln, the fight over slavery, and the Second Great Awakening. Bush commented how impressed he was that so many people he meets at presidential rope lines say they are praying for him and said, “A lot of people in America see this as a confrontation between good and evil, including me.” But, as in many things, Bush got the facts wrong. The Second Great Awakening came quite a few years before Lincoln, and Abraham Lincoln stands out among presidents as one who called for national humility and repentance, not self-righteousness and triumphalism. In his Second Inaugural Address, Lincoln drew no easy lines of good and evil, but said that both sides in the Civil War stood under the judgment of God. Bush’s rhetoric of “the evildoers” arrayed against the absolute goodness of America, with no hint of self-reflection on how U.S. policies have contributed to global resentments and conflicts, is hardly Lincolnesque.
1. link A to B and to C : A를 B, C와 연결 짓다. 이라크 전쟁을 자신의 신앙과 연결하였고, 그가 ~의 가능성으로 본 것(what he saw as the possibility of ~ )과 관계 지었다는 말인데, 대통령 집무실(the Oval Office)에서 관련 지어 그런 얘기를 했다는 의미이므로, 굳이 ‘관계 지었다’는 표현을 일일이 언급할 필요는 없다.
2. tied to ~ : 앞에 ‘관계대명사+be동사(which was)’가 생략된 것으로, tied는 수동태. the possibility of a ‘Third Great Awakening’을 꾸며준다. ‘~에 의지한(달려 있는) 세 번째 대각성의 가능성'.
3. how impressed he was ~ : 그가 얼마나 감동을 받았는지.
4. got the facts wrong : 사실을 틀리게 받았다(이해했다).
5. drew no ~ : 어떤 ~도 그리지 않았다.
6. arrayed against ~ : 앞에 ‘관계대명사+be동사(who are)’가 생략된 것으로, arrayed는 수동태. 앞의 the evildoers를 꾸며준다. ‘~의 반대편에 배치된 악당들’.
7. with no hint of ~ : ~라는 조금의 기색이나 도움이 될 만한 어떤 암시나 정보도 없이. (hint : a small amount or slight, helpful suggestion or tip)
8. hardly ~ : 조금도 ~하지 않다. (certainly not)
9. -esque : 특정한 사람이나 사물의 스타일이나 패션으로. (in the style or fashion of the specified person or thing)
Bush sees his war on terrorism as “the decisive ideological struggle of the 21st century, and the calling of our generation.” According to him, the war in Iraq is not a mistake but a “war that will set the course for this new century?and determine the destiny of millions across the world.” It is clear now that no course changes are being contemplated, because the president believes that “the safety of America depends on the outcome of the battle in the streets of Baghdad.” While I think the threat of terrorism is very real, I don’t believe the war on Iraq is the answer. Bush’s complete self-confidence is tied to his theology?“we go forward with trust in that spirit, confidence in our purpose, and faith in a loving God who made us to be free.” Rich Lowry, editor of the arch-conservative National Review, reported, “Bush’s faith in the rightness of his strategy in the broader war is deep-seated - it is, indeed, a product of faith.”
1. not A but B : A가 아니라 B이다.
2. It is clear now that ~ : 이제 ~인 게 분명하다.
3. tie to ~ : (미 속어) ~를 의지하다(~와 제휴하다). be tied to ~ 는 ‘~에 의지되다’.
4. his strategy in the broader war : 더 폭넓은 전쟁에 대한 그의 전략. 즉, 전쟁을 더욱 강화하려는 전략. broad는 표면 넓이를 뜻하며, ‘폭넓은, 강한, 분명한’을 내포한다. (large in extent from one side to the other &clear, obvious, strong, etc)
5. deep-seated : 문제, 감정, 믿음 등의 원인이 오랫동안 있어온 것이라 변하기 어려움을 뜻한다. 확고한, 고질적인. (something such as problem, feeling, or belief is difficult to change because its causes have been there for a long time)
A God who warns us not to trust in military might and who judges the rich and powerful most of all, and a Savior who challenges his disciples not just to see the log in their adversary’s eye but also the one in their own - all this seems quite foreign to the faith of George W. Bush. I don’t doubt his personal faith, but Bush’s bad theology (they are evil and we are good) is the foundation for his bad foreign policy and reveals an alarming lack of capacity for self-examination. The fact that he is president and (unlike Lincoln) believes that God is on his side poses a real threat to the safety of our children and the peace of the world.
1. warn A not to do ~ : ~하지 말라고 A에게 경고하다.
2. challenge ~ not just to see A but also B : A를 볼 뿐만 아니라 B도 역시 보라고 ~을 꾸짖다(요구하다).
3. foreign to ~ : ~에게 낯선, 익숙하지 않은. (unfamiliar to ~)
4. doubt : 의심하다, 확신하지 못하다. (to feel uncertain)
5. is the foundation for ~ : ~에 대한 토대 혹은 기반이다.
6. The fact that ~ : ~라는 사실. that절의 주어는 he이고 동사는 is와 believes이다. believes 다음의 that절(that God is on his side까지)은 believes의 목적어(절). The fact의 서술어(전체 문장의 서술어)는 pose(내포하다, 지니다, 초래하다)이다.
The relationship between the Bush self-confidence and the Bush theology is a very dangerous one. But opposition to Bush’s policies is growing and is now bipartisan. Rejection of Bush’s worldview and agenda is now central to our national security. If, because of Bush’s self-confident religion, his policies can’t be changed, they must be blocked and thwarted in Congress.
1. growing : 크기, 강도, 정도가 다 커지는. (increasing in size, intensity, or extent)
2. bipartisan : 두 그룹 또는 두 정당의 지지를 받는, 혹은 그 둘로 이루어지는. (supported by or consisting of two groups or political parties)
3. central : 주요한, 가장 중요한, 어떤 것의 중심을 이루는. (principal or most important &forming the center of something)
4. because of ~ : 삽입절. ~ 때문에.
George Bush unrelentingly proclaims that he is just trying to protect America. But who will protect us (and the rest of the world) from him?
1. unrelenting : ‘관점이나 이미 취한 행동 경로를 바꾸기를 거부하는, 자비나 연민의 감정으로 부드러워지지 않는’이란 뜻인데, ‘지속적인, 결코 멈추지 않는’의 의미와 상통한다. (refusing to change viewpoint or a chosen course of action, not softened by feelings of mercy or pity, &constant, never stopping)
2. proclaim : ‘어떤 것을 공식적으로 알리다’라는 뜻인데, ‘너무 명백하게 주장하거나 증명하다’는 의미를 내포한다. (to announce something publicly and attest or prove something all too clearly)
3. protect us from him : 그(의 위협)로부터 우리를 보호하다.
Jim Wallis /
editor-in-chief of <Sojourners>
chief executive officer of <Sojourners/Call to Renewal>
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